Not that I have ever seen no. There is nothing I could think of that could cause the CPU to kill a HDD. Now it could write corrupt files to the HDD if the CPU is having an issue but thats the only thing it would do. It wouldn't kill the HDD and a format would clear that up.
Reasons for dying hard drive
1: Random failure / Old
2: Abused drive, ie torrents or programs that "thrash" the headers a lot.
3: Power supply. That would also end up killing other things too eventually.
corrupt files could be either drive or software related.