I wouldn't. card can briefly consume almost 300W at full. depending on your CPU there may be no voltage for the motherboard.
the PSU has the ports but the limits are too close for comfort. this close you are risking reboots when you near the edge and overheating while running that close to the PSU's max.
Sapphire Nitro RX 580
Specs for this card state up to 235 watts. That's far too much for just a 450 watt PSU. While the system may boot up and run fine for awhile, it may crash unexpectedly at any time (though most likely when under load).
Take a look at the link in my sig. Even if the PSU you had provided more power, the VS series from Corsair is not a good power supply. Corsair does have better models, and Seasonic's FOCUS and PRIME are better.
It'll be noticeable - you'll be able to run high or max details in more games and be able to maintain 60fps. Or, if you have a fast refresh monitor, you'll be able to take advantage of higher refresh rates/frame rates at the same settings you're currently using.