There is no guarantee. Your windows registry will have the old hardware config. It might boot, it might blue screen, it might seem to work OK (only to blue screen days or weeks later). The best answer is to do a clean OS install any time a motherboard is changed.
Assuming that you have a Microsoft Account your windows 10 licence should be tied to you, not your hardware. You should be able to upgrade your components; then once you sign in with your Microsoft account everything will be taken care of automatically. While you are doing this a fresh installation of windows would be recommended.