I wanted to know if these electronic cards, such as ssd, ram memory, video card, motherboard, etc.
Do they have an estimated lifespan, do they burn out of nowhere or do they give warning before they burn out?
Lifespan is usually shown as MTBF on the product's site. MTBF's are shown on storage and fans/AIO's and PSU's. That's not stated on motherboard's and GPU's, last I checked. As for the question being in the overclocking section, always make sure that things are kept as cool as possible since MTBF's tend to nosedive when you add heat to the mixture.
my motherboard burned without warning, out of nowhere the computer turned off and I knew it was her, because I had already gone to the technical assistance before and I knew that she was having problems and the technician said that there was no way to save it and I was forced to buy a new one without notice. it left me struck by the volatility and insecurity.
Estimated lifespan depends on a bunch of conditions, mostly environmental. So it's hard to get an estimate and there's no real mathematical thing to even get a ballpark estimate.
As for burning out of nowhere or giving a warning, they can do both. For the former, there's something called the bathtub curve for failure rates. That is, the times when hardware fails, it's most likely to happen either in the first 30 or so days of use or after years of use. But even then, only one component may have to burn out and if it's overworked, it may die sooner than the rest of the board. For giving a warning, mainly it happens in the form of unexpected errors or a higher occurrence of them. As an example, for hard drives, a dying one will start accumulating a lot of errors in a relatively short time.