Hello all, currently doing a digital circuits course in university. CPUs and GPUs in modern times have billions of transistors. How is something on that scale improved or even iterated on? I understand being able to tweak individual adders or multiplexers to increase efficiency, but how is such a thing possible for people to do on a chip that has billions of them? Do they use supercomputers to simulate all the transistors, or is there some level of similarity which is then scaled up to billions?