If you look at the properties it should tell you the connection speed. You will see numbers like 300,433,867. See if you get different numbers on the laptop and the desktop. This represent how good the signal is and the method being used to encode the data. You want to see if the numbers are different.
One of the big things that could be happening is that your desktop is connecting to the 2.4g radio and the laptop is connecting to the 5g radio or the reverse. Be sure it connects correctly. You really should use different SSID for the 2.4 and 5g radios in your router so you can control this. The default on many routers is to use the same SSID.
That card is fine it antenna that tend to be the issue. On a laptop the antenna are behind the screen where nothing really blocks them. On your desktop the antenna are very close to the back of large metal box that blocks lots of signals. Many people also put desktop machines under the desk against a wall which further blocks the signals. There are antenna extension cables that allow you to move the antenna away from the back of the case.
Try moving or turning the desktop to see if it makes a difference. You might also temporarily move it near the router just to see what the best possible connection speed is.