When you get the new drive, there are a few things to pay attention to even if you BELIEVE you fully understand the best installation practices that should be followed. AND, you might, but it's always good to be sure because I have a feeling they weren't followed before, hence your problem with the multiple drive installation resulting in partitions not being where they should be.
First, there should only be ONE storage device attached to the system when you do the Windows installation, other than the device you are installing FROM. ONE.
Disconnect ALL drives except the USB or optical installation media and the target drive for the operating system. Otherwise you may end up with orphaned partitions, as you have seen, with the boot manager being on a drive it doesn't belong on.
Two, do NOT create ANY partitions or do ANY formatting of the target drive before you install Windows. During the installation you will choose the "Custom" option, you will delete ALL existing partitions (If there ARE any) on the drive and then you will click on the listed "unallocated space" which should be the only drive in the list, and then click next. Windows will create ALL necessary partitions and perform ANY necessary formatting, automatically. You do not need to do that prior to the installation.
If you follow my guide, it will give you EVERY step you need to take in order to ensure the result is a CLEAN install of Windows. If you wish, you could also try this with the current Corsair drive, as you really have nothing to lose by doing so. I think your problems mainly stem from borked partition structure, although it's certainly possible that you have a bad drive. Pretty rare to see an SSD go bad though, rather than simply wear out over time, which would take many years in most cases.
Windows 10 Clean install tutorial This tutorial is intended to help you, step by step, to perform a clean install of Windows version 10, build 1709 or newer but can be equally applied to earlier installer versions which may simply lack some of the Cortana assisted settings screens but should...