Question PC shut down while gaming

Jul 30, 2020
I had my PC for a few years now.
A year ago, I upgraded my GPU to a Sapphire Nitro+ RX580 4GB. It required a new PSU, as my old one didn't have the 8+6pin power connector. So I bought a Corsair CX550 (80 Plus bronze).
I've been using it without a problem. Today, I was playing Mad Max when the PC shut down. It still had some LEDs on, but hitting the power button did nothing. I unplugged everything, opened the case and sniffed it. (I always sniff electronics when they malfunction.) There was a faint smell of burned plastic, but I could not determine where it came from.

I don't have any spare parts to swap and test my rig. I plugged everything back and the PC just started normally.
How can I determine what happened, and if there is a faulty component? Is there a log on the system to check for temperature or electrical surges?
I know I shouldn't ignore this, but I was wondering if there was any way to do it myself, instead of taking it to the assistance.

My Specs:
FX 8320e + CoolerMaster Blizzard T2
8GB DDR3 HyperX 1600MHz
Gigabyte GA-970A-DS3P Rev. 2.x
2 SSDs (480GB + 120GB)
1 HDD (1TB)
Corsair CX550 (80 Plus bronze)

Any help is appreciated.