When my computer was in the process of shutting down, I accidentally hit the extension's power switch with my foot, turning the computer off. Now, when I turn it on, it freezes at the user selection screen and the icons become unable to click. When i manage to select the user and input the password (if it doesn't freeze again) it proceeds to the Welcome screen and takes around 15 minutes to start up. How can I fix this?
It's hard to know what's wrong exactly. Usually if a PC's boot process is interrupted you need to restore from a restore point but if it didn't give you that option my guess is that something shorted and/or was damaged when the power cut out. Try shutting down, switching off the switch on the back of your power supply and then unplugging the power supply entirely. Wait for 20 seconds or so then plug back in, switch on the PSU, boot up and see what happens.
That didn't work. If I use the restore point, will it delete any data? I can use that function if I press F8 while in the Windows splash screen and start in Safe Mode or something like that.
Restoring using a restore point does as the name suggests; your computer would load up the latest restore point and any changes to your system after the date on the restore point would be erased. You'll have to look at the dates on the restore point list and see if there's one that's recent enough that it'd be worth restoring to. That said, even a complete reinstall of windows wouldn't solve a hardware issue. If your hard drive was damaged when the power cut off nothing short of a new drive will solve the issue. Unless you think you have a virus or changed some crazy setting a restore point will not help you here. Try booting into safe mode and see if anything is different. if you can get into the desktop just use the PC for a few minutes, download some music or something to test the hard drive. If there are still freezes or crashes than it's almost surely a hardware issue. If that's the case you can try backing up your data and sending the PC into the manufacturer or taking it to a reputable repair shop (not bestbuy, a store like microcenter would be a much better choice.)
Hope one of these suggestions helps!
EDIT: if you try booting into safe mode you'll need to choose safe mode with network otherwise the network adapter won't start and you won't be able to test the hard drive by downloading a file.
Check the computer vendor and the hard drive vendor for a low level disk check utility. It should not take that long to boot up a system. You may have an issue that will lead to a disk crash, good idea to test things now.
The problems only occur during the user selection and welcome screens. After that everything works fine and it downloads normally, no freezes or crashes. It shuts down normally too.
I tried the disk defrag, but that didn't fix it. The /scannow results: Windows Resource Protection did not find any integrity violations.
It's ok if there's no solution. After the boot process everything is ok, I can wait 15-30 minutes no biggie
Run a chkdsk like hang-the -9 suggested. from a command prompt, it's:
chkdsk c: /f
Ah, I missed that he did not run that (or maybe did and did not let us know he did), that is the one you'd want to run more than the defrag. The defrag I like to do as it will tend to fail or take an oddly long time if there are disk issues, it's not so much to do a defrag as it is to make sure the disk is OK to actually run one without issues.