It's impossible for us to come up with this number [that exactly balances demand]
Business major graduates spend a great deal of time learning how to do this. It's never perfect of course, but with iterative feedback they can get astonishingly close.
In general increasing MSRP creates less favorable reviews that lead to less sales.
The entire point of a supply shortfall is that you can decrease demand without
decreasing sales. If you can only produce 1000 widgets a day and higher prices means that, instead of 2000 people trying to buy, only 1200 do, then you've nearly balanced demand, and you haven't decreased sales at all. You've simply increased revenue, and profitability. This is really a very basic concept, and shouldn't be difficult to understand.
As for the "less favorabke reviews", those evaporate pretty much instantly when a price cut comes along. Or a manufacturer could head it off entirely by leaving the official published MSRP unchanged, and simply charging a short-term "shortage surcharge", set to expire at a given time. That would be the best of all possible worlds for us the consumer -- but manufacturers won't do it, because a herd of ignorant dolts on social media would instantly accuse them of "profiteering from the crisis". So instead, we struggle with scalpers, and even higher average prices.
Finally, I point out that unrealistically low prices that lead to shortages also cause unfavorable reviews, through endemic unavailability and unhappiness with scalping -- as seen in this very thread.