"As discussed above, Webmail is accessed through web browsers only, whereas Email Clients are accessed through desktop programs. So, if you find yourself in a position where your email is no longer accessible what do you do if you have a Webmail account or an Email Client account? "
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Maybe with my question, I didn't give you understand completely my concern on mail servers understanding.
So, last days, I have read a lot of web pages, blogs, articles on them, I have seen many many YouTube videos, trying to understand the following:
There are two kind of servers, as far as it concerns mails:
a. Web SMTP mail server (for a domain) b. local installed mail server
What exactly is [b.] ?
Many many terms on mail environments. And specifically, on mail servers!!!
Also, on game, into play, there are some companies called Email Service Providers (ESP). These ESPs, have nothing to do with all that? e.g. Google SMTP mail server, or Yahoo! SMTP mails server, etc, where and what is their ESPs???
Too many question on my whole concern.
But, my main question is for the Web SMTP Mail Servers vs local mail servers (MS Exchange, Postfix, etc.).
So, since there are the Web SMTP mail servers, that will do the whole job of delivering email messages, why there are also these local email servers to install? What is the difference between them?
Whether it's a 'web' email server or a local/in-house email server, it's still a server, somewhere, serving email. Maybe the difference you are looking for is 'hosted' email vs. local email server?
Hosted email, like Microsoft 365 plans, works almost exactly like a local email server, from the end user perspective. For hosted email, you still have an administrator (or administrators) who create and configure email accounts (and other mailflow and email settings) for users. The only difference is that they do it on a cloud-base platform (website) and never have access to the operating system layer or hardware layer of the server. With a local server, running Microsoft Exchange (for example) you control everything - email configuration, operating system configuration, hardware configuration, etc.
There's also some middle ground choices, per se. Many datacenters and hosting services offer a virtual machine to do with as you please. At that point you are handling the operating system side as well as the email server service side.
Then you also have services where you get a physical server and the datacenter where the server resides is only responsible for ping, power, and pipe (as the saying goes). You are responsible for everything else.
Maybe you're thinking there's some kind of server-side difference between a hotmail.com, gmail.com, or yourdomain.com email account? There really isn't. They are just email domains, served from an email server, to clients (users).
Also, on this whole case, I think there is also a third kind of mail server (other than web mail server and in-hosted mail server), that makes the job that I try to understand. It's the mail server called Mail Transfer Agent (MTA). They are also called "mail servers", but they make other job. Their main duty is to relay mail messages after they have been out of web mail server or in-hosted mail server, and the message has to travel over the internet. There, the message is on these MTAs' hands.
So, if I have understood well enough, there are 3 mail server kinds:
a. web mail server
b. in-hosted mail server
c. MTA mail server
They are all called in simple nomenclature "mail server", but they are different. Different jobs, specifically in c. (MTA) case.
Have I understood well? How about these MTAs?
And, if we take as an example Yahoo! , Yahoo! mail server may have its own mail server that has mailboxes for its user accounts (database) and other staff, but, maybe, Yahoo!'s mails, in order to be transfered in/out, Yahoo! has no server about that. Other mail servers, some MTAs configured to make the pass, reside somewhere on the web. How about that?
Please, some more information about the above and the MTAs would be very helpful !
Suppose I have rent a domain e.g. test.com in order to create my own @test.com mail accounts.
a. Should I also rent a Public IP address?
b. I am not sure but, there is something called cPanel on my domain rent company that in cPanel I can create mail accounts e.g. tom@test com. Is that correct?
c. After I will create an account on cPanel (if this is correct), and only after creating the account there, I can install it on e.g. Microsoft Exchange Server or Postfix, and manage it from there.