The USB-SATA bridge converts the sector size, it doesn't merely relay it. The HDD can be a 512n or 512e model, yet the bridge may still report a sector size of 4Kn to the host. That's what Seagate's enclosures do.
WD's enclosures can be "quick formatted" using WD's tool. This changes the sector size reported by the bridge, irrespective of the HDD behind the bridge.
A drive manufacturer's external enclosure is a different story. They may ship the drives without a controller board and have all that in the enclosure to prevent people from simply harvesting the drive from the external drives. After all, they sell higher capacity external drives cheaper than internal drives.
I do not believe this applies to any other storage drive to USB interface, because it doesn't make sense. There's no real reason to override what the physical sector size of the drive is.
Okay so I looked up a tear down on Western Digital's 3.5" external drives and it appears they're using an adapter. However, the controller board on the 2.5" drives have no adapter.
Either way, again, it's the storage manufacturer making the enclosure. They can do things that generic enclosures cannot do.