Sandy and ivy bridge could be slightly overclocked, by changing the multiplier to the max turbo multiplier, in the bios. I don't believe B75 was capable of overclocking, but Asrock has been known to give OC capabilities, in it's bios, on CPU's and chipsets, that shouldn't, in the past.
Only way it would damage anything is if you were to play with voltages, or your cooler was not up to the task of keeping the CPU cool. I would not attempt on a stock Intel cooler. You are just forcing max turbo clock, on all cores, instead of one or 2. In the case of the i7 2600, you would change the multiplier to 38, and not touch anything else. I ran an i5 2400, with a P67 Extreme4, the same way. Just changed the multiplier to max turbo, and left everything else alone. It is not something you have to do, I just wanted you to be aware of the possibility of squeezing a little more, out of that CPU.
I took a little time, to research that motherboard. I would just leave the CPU alone. No heatsinks on the VRM's, so even a mild OC is probably not the best idea. For stock operation, it should be fine, though. Get your system back up and running, and start saving up for something new.
I would definitely take a look at Ryzen 3000, when it comes out. Given the range and number of boards coming out, for launch, I suspect it is going to be a great family of CPU's. I cannot remember the last time there was an AMD launch, with this much motherboard support, from the start.