You would be better off investing in something like a Ryzen 5600G and some new DDR4 memory. That would increase your gaming performance roughly to that GT1030 level, and leave room for a GPU upgrade later on.
Yea I agreee with Eximo, on this one. That system is too old to be sticking any money into it. Also what make/model on that PSU? 600w doesn't really tell us if it is of decent quality, or if it's a fire hazard.
Modern graphics cards need a UEFI bios to be detected by the motherboard.
I suspect that your motherboard may only have a legacy bios.
The transition from legacy to uefi in graphics cards happened with the GTX700 series, or thereabouts. At that time, some new cards had a switch or other means to allow connection to legacy motherboards.
Your processor is relatively weak.
Before buying a strong graphics card upgrade, try this simple test:
Run YOUR games, but lower your resolution and eye candy.
This makes the graphics card loaf a bit.
If your FPS increases, it indicates that your cpu is strong enough to drive a better graphics configuration.
If your FPS stays the same, you are likely more cpu limited.
Look at the specs for any card you want to buy.
Verify that it supports legacy bios or that it has a hybrid mode that can use either type of bios.
You may have better success with s similarly performing older card like a RX570.
it's actually a hit or miss.. I was lucky enough that a GTX 1650 worked on my old mobo with legacy bios.
there's some bits of lag of course, but having the 1650 greatly helped run some games smoother, espescially those that are gpu dependent.
using pcie 1.1.
I do agree with what @Eximo suggested to the thread OP, just buy new mobo.
the reason I have a 1650 on an lga 775 is because, I wanted to preserve the pc, and I have two other pc's for more intense gaming. The OP I assume only has one pc, better for him to just buy a new one that can use the full potential of modern gpu like the 1650.