Do you see any devices with yellow exclamation points or question marks in device manager?Thanks for the follow-up. The log file is quite long and hard to parse, but the Windows 10 Update installer makes no secret of the problem. It says "AMD Ryzen™ or AMD Ryzen™ Threadripper™ configured in SATA or NVMe RAID mode.
A driver is installed that causes stability problems on Windows. This driver will be disabled. Check with your software/driver provider for an updated version that runs on this version of Windows." and then provides the following link: https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/4504107/cannot-install-may-2019-update-on-computers-running-certain-amd-raid
Unfortunately, none of this is useful, as I have an Intel PC and am unable to install any sort of AMD driver updates. Seems that Crucial botched this one. So far I am unimpressed with their support; if they can't make this right, they'll have lost a long-time customer.
Additionally, can you please check to see if your motherboard is operating in raid mode? Just report your findings, don't change anything. You'll have to enter the bios to check this. Other possible modes will be IDE/SATA/AHCI